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1. Concepts

1.1. Economy of the audiovisual industry

Note: The accounts in the general accounting plan are included inside parentheses where there is a correspondence with the concept defined.

1.1.1. Operating income and expenditures and other economic results

Turnover
Turnover (c.700 + c.701 + c.702 + c.703 + c.704 + c.705 − c.708 − c.709) includes the amounts invoiced by the company during the reference year for the provision of services and sale of goods that are the object of company traffic. Sales (c.700 + c.701 + c.702 + c.703 + c.704 + c.705) are counted without including the value added tax (VAT) and in net terms, that is, deducting discounts on sale for cash discounts (c.706), the sales returns (c.708) and allowances (c.709).
Other income
This includes work carried out by the company for fixed assets (subgroup 73), operating subsidies incorporated in the profit for the financial year (c.740 + c.747), the imputation of non-financial fixed asset subsidies and others (c.746) and other management income (subgroup 75). This other management income includes income from property not used in operations, royalties received from concessions, income from commissions, income from services to the staff, and income from the temporary provision of certain services to other companies or individuals.
Variations in stocks of finished products and products in progress
This includes work carried out by the company for fixed assets (subgroup 73), operating subsidies incorporated in the profit for the financial year (c.740 + c.747), the imputation of non-financial fixed asset subsidies and others (c.746) and other management income (subgroup 75). This other management income includes income from property not used in operations, royalties received from concessions, income from commissions, income from services to the staff, and income from the temporary provision of certain services to other companies or individuals.
Consumption of raw materials and other supplies
The total consumption of raw materials (that is, the goods purchased in order to be transformed in the manufacturing process) and the consumption of other supplies (fuel, spare parts, office supplies, etc.). The consumption of raw materials (c.601 − c.6061 − c.6081 − c.6091 − c.611) is calculated by subtracting the amount of the variation in stocks of raw materials from the purchases of raw materials. The consumption of other supplies (c.602 − c.6062 − c.6082 − c.6092 − c.612) is calculated by subtracting the amount of the variations in stocks of other supplies from the purchase of other supplies. Purchases (c.601, c.602) are calculated without including the VAT and in net terms, that is deducting for cash discounts (c.6060) and the sales returns (c. 6080) and allowances (c.6090).
Consumption of merchandise
The consumption of merchandise (c.600 − c.6060 − c.6080 − c.6090 − c.610) is the outcome of subtracting the amount of the variations in stocks of merchandise from purchases of merchandise (that is, the goods acquired by the company in order to resell them without transforming them). The purchases (c.600) are calculated without including the VAT and in net terms, that is, deducting for cash discounts (c.6060), the sales returns and and allowances (c.6090).
Work done by other companies
The value of the jobs that are part of the internal production process but are assigned to and performed by other companies (c.607) or by professionals from the industry (part of account c.623).
Personnel costs
Personnel costs (subgroup 64) include all the payments made by the company to its staff members to remunerate them for their work, as well as the social contributions that must be paid by the company. This includes gross wages and salaries (c.640), indemnification payments (c.641), payments into Social Security that are the responsibility of the company (c.642), long-term benefits from defined contribution and benefit schemes (c.643 + c.644), staff payments using equity instruments (c.645) and other social expenditures (c.649).
Expenditures in external services
This includes expenditures for a variety of different services provided by third parties, such as expenditures on research and development (c.620), rentals and allowances (c.621), repairs and conservation (c.622), services by freelance professionals (c.623, excluding those that perform jobs that are part of the company's internal production process), transports (c.624), non-Social Security insurance premiums (c.625), bank services and similar (c.626), advertising, propaganda and public relations (c.627), non-storable supplies (water, electricity, gas, etc. c.628) and others (travel expenditures and per diems, payments to temporary employment agencies and telecommunications expenses c.629).
Other expenditures
Other operating expenditures considered minor from the point of view of the company's business. Includes the results of joint ventures (c.651) and other income from current management (c.659).
Allocations for depreciation
Expression of systematic annual depreciation on intangible assets effectively and suffered materially for application to the production process and investment in property (subgroup 68).
Gross investments in tangible fixed assets
Purchases of durable goods intended to be used in the company's business (land and natural resources, equipment, buildings and technical facilities, transport items, machinery and equipment, etc.). Also improvements, changes and repairs that prolong useful life or increase productivity. Including investments in property, i.e. properties acquired for income or capital gains and not used in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes. Also includes rights to assets acquired under financial leases during the year. These are calculated without VAT, including installation costs and the associated rights or allowances but not financing expenses. Until 2007, investment in fixed assets was included in the balance between purchases and sales of these assets.
Gross investiments in intangible fixed assets
Company expenses for the acquisition of items that are not long lasting materials (patents, trademarks, designs, copyrights, etc.). Includes expenditure on research and development, concessions, industrial property, goodwill, commercial leasehold and applications.
Purchase of tangible fixed assets
This includes purchases of durable goods to be used in the company's activities (land and natural goods, computer equipment, technical constructions and facilities, transport, machinery and tools, etc.), as well as improvements, transformations and repairs that prolong the lifespan or increase the productivity of these assets. They are calculated without VAT, including installation costs and the associated rights or allowances but not financing expenses.
Sale of tangible fixed assets
This includes the sale of durable goods to be used in the company's activities (land and natural goods, computer equipment, technical constructions and facilities, transport, machinery and tools, etc.). They are calculated without VAT.
Employed persons
All the people who contribute to the production of goods and services by contributing their work, or who perform auxiliary activities in the company (administration, transport, storage). This includes people on vacation, limited leaves of absence, leaves of absence for illness or on strike, as well as people who are part of the company and are paid by it yet that also work outside the company. It does not include people with unlimited leaves of absence, people on loan from another company that is paid for the purpose of lending personnel, staff that works exclusively on commission, freelance professionals linked to the company by a commercial contract, or exclusively capital-providing partners or family members of the owner that do not actively participate in the company. In these statistics, the reference date for the number of employed persons is 30th September.
Wage and salary earners
This includes wage and salary earners linked to the company by a work contract and paid in fixed or periodic amounts (salary, wage, commission, set price or in kind). In these statistics, the reference date for the wage and salary earners is 30th September.

1.1.2. Value of production, GVA and other economic macromagnitudes

Value of production
Amount of goods and services produced by the company. It is obtained by adding the turnover (c.700 + c.701 + c.702 + c.703 + c.704 + c.705 − c.706 − c.708 − c.709), the variation in stocks for both finished products and products that are currently in process (subgroup 71), the work performed for the fixed assets (subgroup 73) and other management income (subgroup 75), and then subtracting from that the consumption of merchandise for resale (that is, net purchases or merchandise for resale, c.600 − c.6060 − c.6080 − c.6090, minus the variation in stocks of merchandise for resale, c.610) and work performed for other companies or professionals in the sector (c.607 and part of c.623).
Intermediate consumption
Value of the goods and services consumed in the production process, excluding capital goods. It is obtained by adding the consumption of raw materials (c.601 − c.6061− c.6081 − c.6091 − c.611) and consumption of other supplies (c.602 − c.6062 − c.6082 − c.6092 − c.612), the expenditures on external services (subgroup 62). Until 2007, "other expenditures of management" were considered part of intermediate consumption and therefore included in the calculation.
Gross value added at market prices
The difference between the value of the production and the value of intermediate consumption.
Net taxes on subsidies
The difference between the indirect taxes paid and the operating subsidies received (subgroup 74). The taxes on products include taxes linked to imports, registration taxes, the transfer of assets and documented legal rulings or taxes on gambling or lotteries. The taxes linked to production include the economic activity tax (IAE), the real estate tax (IBI) and the vehicle tax.
Gross value added at factor costs
Gross income from operating activities that is used to remunerate the productive factors: labour (personnel costs) and capital (gross operating surplus). This is obtained by subtracting the net taxes on subsidies from the gross value added at market prices.
Personnel costs
Personnel costs (subgroup 64) include the total amount of payments made by the company to remunerate personnel for their work, as well as the social payments to be made by the company. It includes gross wages and salaries (c.640), indemnifications (c.641), payments into Social Security that are the responsibility of the company (c.642), long-term benefits from defined contribution and benefit schemes (c.643 + c.644), staff payments using equity instruments (c.645) and other social expenditures (c.649).
Gross operating surplus
General surplus generated by operating activities after compensating the labour factor. This can be calculated as the difference between the gross value added at factor costs and personnel costs.

1.1.3. Productivity, added rate and other economic indicators

Productivity
The quotient between the gross value added value at factor costs and the average annual employment. Productivity is expressed in euros and it represents the contribution by each worker (salaried or not) to generating income in the company. Indirectly, it is a measurement of the relative weight of the labour factor in each activity.
Value added rate
Percentage gross value added at factor costs in relation to the value of the production. The value added rate represents each product or service unit's ability to generate income.
Personnel costs rate
Proportion that personnel costs represent in relation to the gross value added at factor costs. The personnel costs rate represents a measurement of salaried employees' participation in the distribution of the income generated in the sector.
Gross operating surplus rate
Proportion that the gross operating surplus represent in relation to the gross value added at factor costs.

1.1.4. Employment

Employed persons
All the people who contribute to the production of goods and services by contributing their work, or who perform auxiliary activities in the company (administration, transport, storage). This includes people on vacation, limited leaves of absence, leaves of absence for illness or on strike, as well as people who are part of the company and are paid by it yet that also work outside the company. It does not include people with unlimited leaves of absence, people on loan from another company that is paid for the purpose of lending personnel, staff that works exclusively on commission, freelance professionals linked to the company by a commercial contract, or exclusively capital-providing partners or family members of the owner that do not actively participate in the company. In these statistics, the reference date for the number of employed persons is 30th September.
Wage and salary earners
Wage and salary earners linked to the company by a work contract and paid in fixed or periodic amounts (salary, wage, commission, set price or in kind). A distinction is made between fixed wage and salary earners (those with a contract or indefinite labour tie) and temporary wage and salary earners (those with a contract with a limited or defined length). In these statistics, the reference date for the wage and salary earners is 30th September.
Non-wage and salary earners
All the people who manage or actively participate in the activity of the company without earning any type of fixed wage or salary. This includes owners, autonomous partners who exercise an activity in the company, and family help. In these statistics, the reference date for the wage and salary earners is 30th September.

1.1.5. Employment indicators

Wage and salary earner rate
Percentage number of wage and salary earners in relation to the number of employees, with 30th September as the reference date.
Employment stability rate
Proportion of fixed wage and salary earners in relation to the number of employees, with 30th September as the reference date.
Female participation rate
Percentage females employed in relation to the number of employees, with 30th September as the reference date.
Female wage and salary earner rate
Percentage female wage and salary earners in relation to the number of employees, with 30th September as the reference date.

1.1.6 Household expenditure

Household
Set of one or more people that reside in the same home, and share some common expenses but are not necessarily family relatives.

1.2. Audiovisual supply

1.2.1. Cinema

Capacity
Number of seats available per movie theatre in each session scheduled for their screens.
Movie theatre
Active equipment with one or more screens, that is, those that have scheduled film screenings throughout the year.

1.2.2. Radio and Television

Frequency Modulation (FM)
Type of angular modulation that transmits information in a carrier wave by varying its frequency. FM applications include radio, where receivers use an FM detector and the tuner is able to receive the strongest signal of those transmitted on the same frequency. Another of the characteristics of FM is the ability to transmit stereophonic signals.
DTT
Digital Terrestrial Television.
DAB (Digital Audio Broadcasting)
Digital Audio Broadcasting.
Service zone
The zone of service of DTT or DAB is made up of the townships of the towns included within the scope of coverage.

1.3. Demand for audiovisual contents

Film spectators
Persons who have attended a cinema at least once in the past 12 months.
Habitual film spectators
Persons who have attended a cinema six or more times in the past 12 months.
Sporadic film spectators
People who have attended a cinema fewer than six times in the past 12 months.
Habitual television audience
People who have answered the question on the average number of hours or minutes they watch television every day.
Radio audience
People who have listened to the radio at least every day, more than once a week, once a week, two or three times a month, once a month or sporadically.
Territorial areas

Territorial areas according to the territorial layout of Catalonia in force in 2006, in which the counties are grouped as follows:

  1. Àmbit Metropolità: Alt Penedès, Baix Llobregat, Barcelonès, Garraf, Maresme, Vallès Occidental and Vallès Oriental
  2. Comarques Gironines: Alt Empordà, Baix Empordà, Garrotxa, Gironès, Pla de l'Estany, Ripollès and Selva
  3. Camp de Tarragona: Alt Camp, Baix Camp, Baix Penedès, Conca de Barberà, Priorat and Tarragonès
  4. Terres de l'Ebre: Baix Ebre, Montsià, Ribera d'Ebre and Terra Alta
  5. Àmbit de Ponent: Garrigues, Noguera, Pla d'Urgell, Segarra, Segrià and Urgell
  6. Comarques Centrals: Anoia, Bages, Berguedà, Osona and Solsonès
  7. Alt Pirineu i Aran: Alta Ribagorça, Alt Urgell, Cerdanya, Pallars Jussà, Pallars Sobirà and Val d'Aran
Educational level

Maximum educational level attained by the interviewee within the following scale:

  1. No education: people who do not know how to either read or write, and those that do know how but have attended school for fewer than five years.
  2. Primary education: professional training (industrial pre-apprenticeship), primary school or the first stage of middle school completed.
  3. Secondary education: elementary baccalaureate (general, labour or technical), second stage of middle school completed, secondary school, first or second degree of vocational school (FP1 or FP2), upper baccalaureate (the former BUP and COU).
  4. University education: architecture, technical architecture, engineering, technical engineering, diploma, degree and doctorate.
  5. Other education: education that does not fall within the previous categories.

2. Main statistical sources

2.1. Structural Business Statistics in the Service Sector

The Structural Business Statistics in the Service Sector (called the Annual Services Survey prior to the reference year 2014) is the prime source of structural information on the entire range of market services. It is a sample-based yearly survey performed by the INE in conjunction with the Statistical Institute of Catalonia for data from Catalonia, and its main purpose is to analyse the economic characteristics companies within the sector, such as their main activity and employment rates, as well as accounting data such as expenditures and revenue.

The population scope the Structural Business Statistics in the Service Sector has gradually expanded over time. The research primarily includes the financial industry and the branches with a notable presence of non-market services (education and healthcare). The goal of this publication focuses on analysing audiovisual services, that is, cinematographic and video activities within radio and television activities.

The statistical unit of research is the company, whose main economic activity is the provision of some type of service. The term "company" refers to the smallest combination of legal units that constitute an organisation that produces goods or services and that has a certain degree of autonomy in decision-making. A company may exercise its activities in one or more units (establishments). The company is, then, the informant unit because it is perfectly defined and localised, and because it has the accounting and employment data in order to respond and provide homogenous information. The data published for Catalonia in these statistics refer to the activity performed by the units of the company.

The population scope of the Structural Business Statistics in the Service Sector is the Central Companies Directory (DIRCE), which contains information on the main economic activities and the number of wage and salary earners in companies. This information comes from the administrative registers from the State Tax Agency (AEAT) (the fiscal section that appears in the economic activity tax) and the National Social Security Institute (INSS) (payment accounts) in addition to other information from the INE's statistical operations.

The reference period for the data requested is the calendar year, except in the case of the number of persons employed, as the reference for this magnitude is the 30th of September.

The results of this statistical operation are presented in thousands of euros without decimals for the economic variables, and in units for the employment variables. When information is not available or the percentage variation cannot be calculated, the symbol ":" has been used. This symbol has also been used in the sections on the percentage variation of three items: variation in stocks of finished products and products that are currently in process, taxes on subsidies and gross investment in fixed tangible assets. The reason is that these items could have a negative sign and register relatively volatile magnitudes. If the value of a quad is lower than that of the minimum publication unit, the symbol used has been "..".

2.2. Survey on Consumption and Cultural Practices

The Survey on Consumption and Cultural Practices Practices is part of the official statistics of Catalonia. Its goal is to find out the behaviour of the population of Catalonia in relation to the effective consumption of cultural goods and services and culture-related practices. This survey is conducted by the Government of Catalonia's Department of Culture in conjunction with the Idescat.

The main goal of this survey is to get an estimate of the effective demand for cultural and entertainment products in Catalonia. It primarily studies participation by the population of Catalonia in cultural and entertainment activities. The aim is to find out how much time, what content and how often people spend time on culture, regardless of their reasons (professional or personal), as well as the activities performed during their free time. The contents of the Survey on Consumption and Cultural Practices is far-ranging and basically contains the following sections: participation in and attendance at cultural events, the means of information of cultural events, habits with regard to the media and the new technologies, cultural equipment, audiovisuals and new technologies in the household, the availability and use of free time, membership in clubs and cultural socialisation.

The unit of analysis is the population aged 15 and over that resides in a family dwelling in Catalonia. The survey encompasses the cultural activities and practices performed during the three or 12 months prior to the date of the fieldwork. In order to conduct this statistical operation, a representative sample is chosen which considers the following the most influential variables in the subject being studied: region, size of the municipality, sex and age. This sample is then stratified by the seven territorial areas and according to the size of the municipality.

2.3. Family Budget Survey

There is a long tradition of family budget surveys and they have been highly consolidated on both a European and Spanish level. The first Family budget survey in Spain was conducted in 1958, and that has been followed by several new editions and changes of methodology.

The Continuous Family Budget Survey, Base 1997 (ECPF) is a survey addressed at the households residing in main family homes. Its objective is to find out the volume of quarterly expense made by Spanish households, broken down into a highly detailed set of goods and services, as well as the evolution of these variables over time in relation with the different socio-democratic characteristics of the population. The geographical scope of this statistical operation in the national territory and the time span corresponds to each quarterly cycle (from the third quarter of 1997). The annual estimations are obtained from the sum of the quarterly estimations.

From 2006, the new Family budget survey, Base 2006 (EPF) substituted the Continuous Family Budget Survey, Base 1997 (ECPF), and is still valid today. The EPF is a set of sampled statistics on homes produced by the INE on an annual basis. Its main objective is to produce statistical information on the magnitude, structure and distribution of consumer expenditure made by homes and classified in accordance with the COICOP/HBS. Idescat makes a detailed exploitation on an annual basis that expands upon the results for Catalonia.

The EPF incorporates different methodological recommendations and improvements that serve to improve the quality of the estimation of expenditure on consumption and the way it is structured. The main methodological changes are as follows:

  • Change of timing of the survey. In the survey base 1997 (ECPF) the information was offered on a quarterly basis, and this has been replaced by annual collection.
  • Increase of the sample.
  • Introduction of a new scheme for the collaboration of households. The collaboration of the households in the sample has changed from eight consecutive quarters to two weeks of collaborations for two consecutive years, which considerably reduces the efforts required of households.
  • Increase in the period of household collaboration. In the survey base 1997 the collaboration was one week and this has now become two. This follows the international tendency, and also reduces the effect of there possibly being an atypical week in the behaviour of households regarding their expenditure.
  • Simplification of the instruments for collecting information, which affects the design of the questionnaires and the number and content of visits to households. The aim is to facilitate responses and therefore improve quality.
  • Reduction in the number of variables to be researched by the survey on a permanent basis. The number of variables has been reduced in order to reduce the load of certain parts of the questionnaire.

2.4. Cultural Statistics

The official statistics on the audiovisual supply focus primarily on the data gathered in the Cultural Statistics of Catalonia, drawn up by the Department of Culture.

This information refers to the cinematography supply in Catalonia, and it is yielded from a variety of actions performed by the public administration that provide statistical data on this sector. It is specifically obtained from the following activities:

  • Authorisations and certificates issued during the film production and distribution process by the Department of Culture (or for Spain, by the Spanish Film and Audiovisual Arts Institute ? ICAA).
  • Tracking box-office sales in movie theatres, which is also performed by the Department of Culture and the ICAA.

The information obtained from these sources constitutes the basis of the official statistics of Catalonia on cinematography, which provide data on: production of feature-length films by Catalan production companies, and film screenings in Catalonia.

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