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At risk of poverty or social exclusion and its components

At risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE rate - EU 2030 target) and its components Catalonia
AROPE rate Poverty rate People living in households with low work intensity People suffering from severe material and social deprivation
2021 25.9 19.9 9.6 9.0
2020 26.7 21.7 10.2 8.0
2019 23.6 19.5 8.3 6.5
2018 24.9 21.3 5.8 6.7
2017 24.5 20.0 8.7 6.1
2016 23.8 19.2 7.6 7.8
2015 23.0 19.0 9.1 6.5
Units: Percentage of population.
Source: Idescat, based on data from the INE's Survey of living conditions.
Note: People living in households with low work intensity: calculation made over the population from 18 to 64 years and applied over the population from 0 to 64 years.
At risk of poverty or social exclusion (AROPE rate - EU 2030 target) and its components Spain
AROPE rate Poverty rate People living in households with low work intensity People suffering from severe material and social deprivation
2021 27.8 21.7 11.6 8.3
2020 27.0 21.0 10.0 8.5
2019 26.2 20.7 10.9 7.7
2018 27.3 21.5 10.8 8.7
2017 27.5 21.6 12.8 8.3
2016 28.8 22.3 14.9 8.5
2015 28.7 22.1 15.4 7.4
Units: Percentage of population.
Source: INE. Survey on Living Conditions.
Note: People living in households with low work intensity: calculation made over the population from 18 to 64 years and applied over the population from 0 to 64 years.

Methodological note

The at-risk-of-poverty or social exclusion rate (AROPE rate) is an indicator that measures the proportion of the population that is either at risk of poverty, or in a situation of severe material deprivation, or living in households with very low work intensity.

As of 2021, the AROPE rate was subject to a methodological change that affects two of its three components, namely low work intensity and severe material and social deprivation, while the poverty rate is the only component that has not been modified.

The three components of the AROPE Rate - EU 2030 Target are:

  • At-risk-of-poverty rate: Percentage of people living below the poverty line.
  • Population living in households with low work intensity: The work intensity of the household is calculated by dividing the total number of months worked by the working-age members of the household (population aged 18-64) by the total number of months in which these household members were able to work during the year prior to the survey. Households where the intensity of work is considered very low are those with values equal to or lower than 0.20.
  • Population with severe material and social deprivation: Population that presents a deprivation in at least 7 of the following 13 items:

They cannot afford:

  1. to take a week holiday away from home.
  2. to eat meat, fish or a protein equivalent every second day.
  3. to keep the household adequately warm.
  4. to cover unexpected expenses.
  5. to pay housing-related expenses without delay (mortgage or rent, gas bills, community fees,.... ) or of postponed purchases.
  6. to have access to a car/van for personal use.
  7. to replace broken or worn out furniture.
  8. to replace worn out clothes with new ones.
  9. to have two pairs of suitably fitting shoes.
  10. to spend a small amount of money each week on oneself (“pocket money”).
  11. to practice regular leisure activities.
  12. to meet friends/family for a drink/meal at least once a month.
  13. to have an Internet connection

The data for Catalonia comes from the Survey on Living Conditions. This is an annual statistical operation of INE, which Idescat uses to make a specific application of the results for Catalonia.

From 2016, as the result of an agreement signed with the INE to improve this statistic, Idescat carries out its own field work to extend the Survey with information from ore than 1,700 households; this means that the sample now includes more than 3,000 households and 7,300 individuals. The main objective of this extension is to improve the statistical validity of the results.