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In-house R&D expenditure. By sectors performance

In-house R&D expenditure. 2015-2019 By sectors performance
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Expenditure on R&D (M€) 3,106.8 3,103.4 3,275.8 3,512.7 3,596.6
Public Administration 605.0 599.3 619.8 617.6 667.6
Higher education 714.9 709.0 723.0 732.5 760.8
Businesses and PNP (1) 1,786.8 1,795.1 1,933.0 2,162.6 2,168.3
Expenditure over GDP (%) 1.45 1.39 1.41 1.45 1.44
Public Administration 0.28 0.27 0.27 0.26 0.27
Higher education 0.33 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.30
Businesses and PNP (1) 0.84 0.81 0.83 0.89 0.87
Source: Idescat, based on data from the INE's Statistics on R&D activities.
(1) Private non-profit sector.
Note: The expenditure-to-GDP data for the last four years are provisional.
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