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In-house R&D expenditure. By sectors performance

In-house R&D expenditure. 2014-2018 By sectors performance
2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Expenditure on R&D (M€) 2,937.7 3,106.8 3,103.4 3,275.8 3,512.7
Public Administration 591.3 605.0 599.3 619.8 617.6
Higher education 666.3 714.9 709.0 723.0 732.5
Businesses and PNP (1) 1,680.1 1,786.8 1,795.1 1,933.0 2,162.6
Expenditure over GDP (%) 1.49 1.51 1.45 1.46 1.52
Public Administration 0.30 0.29 0.28 0.28 0.27
Higher education 0.34 0.35 0.33 0.32 0.32
Businesses and PNP (1) 0.85 0.87 0.84 0.86 0.94
Source: Idescat, based on data from the INE's Statistics on R&D activities.
(1) Private non-profit sector.
Note: The data for the last four years are provisional.
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