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In-house R&D expenditure relative to the GDP. By sector of performance

In-house R&D expenditure relative to the GDP. By sector of performance Catalonia. 2018 (p)
Expenditure/GDP (%) Variation (%)
Total 1.52 3.9
Public Administration 0.27 -3.5
Higher education 0.32 -1.9
Business enterprise and PNP (1) 0.94 8.4
Units: Percentage.
Source: Idescat, based on data of the Research and Development Activities Statistics of INE.
(1) Private non-profit sector.
(p) Provisional data.
In-house R&D expenditure relative to the GDP. By sector of performance Spain. 2018 (p)
Expenditure/GDP (%) Variation (%)
Total 1.24 2.5
Public Administration 0.21 0.0
Higher education 0.33 0.0
Business enterprise and PNP (1) 0.71 6.0
Units: Percentage.
Source: INE. Research and Development Activities Statistics.
(1) Private non-profit sector.
(p) Provisional data.

Last update: May 29, 2020.

Statistics RD

Methodological note

Data on the effort in Catalonia in research and technological development (R&D) come from the Statistics on activities in scientific research and technological development carried out by the INE annually. In order to facilitate comparability with other countries of the European Union, the methodology used in these statistics follows the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), as set out in the Frascati Manual.

Scientific research and technological development include the set of creative and original works that are undertaken systematically and/or sporadically in order to increase the volume of knowledge, including knowledge of mankind, culture and society, as well as the use of this knowledge to conceive new applications.

The Statistic on activities in scientific Research and technological Development (R&D) is a census-based statistic in the sectors of Public Administration, higher education and private non-profit institutions, and a sample statistic in the companies sector.

In order to calculate the effort in R&D activities in Catalonia, the spending on R&D activities made within the surveyed unit (gross domestic expenditure) and the personnel employed for this purpose in full-time equivalent employment (FTE) are measured. This information is provided by fields of operation.

Spending is presented in current euros and in percentage of GDP. In order to facilitate the comparability of this indicator we use the data of GDP of the Regional Accounting of Spain of the INE (for years 2002–2008 base 2000, for years 2009–2011 base 2008 and since 2012 base 2010).

The calculation of equivalent full-time personnel takes into account the personnel who work full time in R&D activities and the sum of fractions of time dedicated to R&D activities by part-time personnel. The information is provided by sex and is disaggregated into three professional categories: research, technical and other supporting staff personnel.

As a consequence of the rounding in the information on expenditure relative to the GDP, the rates of variation may differ from those that would be obtained from a direct calculation based on the published data.