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Gross internal expenditure on R&D in relation to GDP (09.10)

Gross internal expenditure on R&D in relation to GDP 2019
Catalonia Spain European Union-27
Total 1.44 (p) 1.25 (p) 2.20 (p)
Business enterprise sector 0.86 (p) 0.70 (p) 1.46 (p)
Government sector 0.27 (p) 0.21 (p) 0.25 (p)
Higher education sector 0.30 (p) 0.33 (p) 0.48 (p)
Private non-profit sector 0.01 (p) 0.00 (p) 0.01 (p)
Units: Percentage.
Source Catalonia: Idescat, based on the INE's statistics on R&D activities. Source Spain and European Union: Eurostat.
(p) Provisional value.

Last update: April 30, 2021.

Methodological note

The indicator measures gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD) as a percentage of the gross domestic product (GDP). "Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man, culture and society and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications" (Frascati Manual, 2002 edition, § 63).